Category: Philosophy | Type: Article | Style: APA | Level: Degree | Pages: 19
The term citizenship simply refers to the membership of a country, a state, a tribe, a community or an authority, which creates rights and duties between citizens and the state. The individuals are bound to abide by the norms, values, mores, taboos and laws determined by the authorities to keep peace and solidarity in its fold. Citizenship not only implements wide range of obligations on citizens, but also offers them many opportunities to grow, make progress, involve into social, political, cultural, religious, economic and other peaceful activities on the one hand, and assures the individuals peaceful environment, security of life, honour and belongings, legal remedies, justice and equality within its platform on the other. Looking into the history of the world from the most primitive societies of Palaeolithic and Neolithic eras to the most modern ones of contemporary technological age, it becomes evident that social inequality and injustices always existed in all human societies give birth to stratification and conflict.
... similar guidelines govern organizations not receiving funds from the Canadian or American federal governments. Individual researchers who do not receive government funding and who do not belong to an organization are not required to adhere to such regulations. However, adherence to the guidelines is recommended for good practice, research and citizenship and to avoid legal liability. When organizations or groups without ethical review boards propose research, a university, hospital, licensing or professional organization, or another institution does reviews. Psychologists performing research or working within provincial or state agencies may need to follow additional guidelines. Individual ... View details
... , the concept of the free movement of persons has changed in meaning so that while the first provisions on the subject referred merely to the free movement individuals considered as economic agents, either as employees or providers of services, it has gradually widened to take on a more general meaning connected with the idea of Union citizenship, independent of any economic activity or distinctions of nationality. This currently applies to nationals of third countries as abolition of control at internal borders allows people movements that could no longer be checked for nationality. The freedom of movement applies to goods, persons, services and capital, the so-called "four freedoms" but ... View details